July 13, 1977: Somalia declares war on Ethiopia, starting the Ethiopian-Somali War.
The Ethio-Somali War (also Ethiopian-Somali War or Ogaden War) was a conventional conflict fought by Somalia and Ethiopia between July 13, 1977 and March 15, 1978 over the disputed Ogaden region in eastern Ethiopia.
In a notable illustration of the nature of Cold War alliances, the Soviet Union switched from supplying aid to Somalia to supporting Ethiopia, which had previously been backed by the United States. This, in turn, prompted the U.S. to later start supporting Somalia. The war ended when Somali forces retreated back across the border and a truce was declared.
DAY 1 INVASION:
The Somali National Army committed to invade the Ogaden at 03:00 on July 13, 1977, according to Ethiopian documents. According to Ethiopian sources, the invaders numbered 70,000 troops, 40 fighter planes, 250 tanks, 350 armored personnel carriers, and 600 artillery, which would have meant practically the whole Somalian Army.
By the end of the month, 60% of the Ogaden had been taken by the SNA-WSLF force, including Gode, on the Shabelle River. The attacking forces did suffer some early setbacks; Ethiopian defenders at Dire Dawa and Jijiga inflicted heavy casualties on assaulting forces. The Ethiopian Air Force(EAF) also began to establish air superiority using its Northrop F-5s, despite being initially outnumbered by Somali MiG-21s.
END OF WAR CASUALTIES AND LOSSES:
●Ethiopia: 6,133 killed,10,563 wounded, 3,867 captured or missing (including 1,362 deserters)
●Cuba: 400 killed
●South Yemen:100 killed
●USSR: 33 dead and missing
Equipment losses: 23 Aircrafts, 39 tanks, 108 APCs and 1,399 vehicles.
275 captured or missing
Equipment losses: 28 Aircrafts (1/2 of Air force),72 tanks, 30 APCs and 90 vehicles.
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