Teresa de Benguela was a Quilombola leader who lived in the state of Mato Grosso, in Brazil, during the 18th century. She was married to José Piolho, who headed the Quilombo do Piolho, between the Guaporé River and Cuiabá city.
After the death of José Piolho, Benguela was crowned queen of the Quilombo, and, under her leadership, the black and indigenous community resisted slavery for two decades. Under her leadership, she built a defense system with guns traded with whites or taken from nearby villages. Quilombo survived up until 1770, when it was destroyed by the military forces of Luiz Pinto de Souza Coutinho. The entire population (79 black people and 30 indigenous people) was killed or arrested.