Henry McNeal Turner (Feb. 1, 1834 – May 8, 1915)
Henry McNeal Turner was a minister, politician, and the first Southern bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church.
Born free in South Carolina, he moved to Georgia after the American Civil War, where he pioneered in organizing new congregations for the independent Black denomination.
Angered by the Democrats’ regaining power and instituting Jim Crow laws in the late 19th-century South, Turner began to support Black nationalism and the emigration of Blacks to Africa.
He was the chief figure in the late 19th century to promote the movement, which expanded after World War I.