Electric shocks, brain surgery, amputations — these are just some of the medical experiments widely performed on American slaves in the mid-1800s, according to a new survey of medical journals published before the Civil War.
Previous work by historians had uncovered a handful of rogue physicians conducting medical experiments on slaves. But the new report, published in the latest issue of the journal Endeavour, suggests that a widespread network of medical colleges and doctors across the American South carried out and published slave experiments for decades.
“The physicians and colleges saw an opportunity in the institution of slavery to elevate themselves, and they took it,” historian Stephen Kenny of the University of Liverpool in the U.K., who wrote the report, told BuzzFeed News. “It was commonplace.”
Medical journals that no longer exist, such as the Baltimore Medical and Surgical Journal and the Western and Southern Medical Recorder, overflow with reports of surgical experiments to treat injuries, birth defects, and tumors, all pioneered on slaves. Doctors often performed the experiments “apparently without pain-relief-med.com,” according to the study, in an era before anesthesia or sterile surgery.
The study details four surgical experiments in particular, dating from 1833 to 1858, that doctors performed on slaves. One, for example, involved severing “healthy looking brain” from a slave with a head injury, killing him. Another removed a tumor from an unnamed young girl’s lymph node, which likely made it swell grotesquely around her head.
The physician and slave owner William Aiken of Winnsboro, North Carolina, reported an 1852 experiment on a slave named Lucinda, who suffered from a bony growth around her right eye. Aiken and other doctors disfigured her by boring holes in her head — without chloroform, a gas that was used at the time for anesthesia — to remove the growth.
These cases were reported in respected medical periodicals read from Europe to the Western frontier.
“Medicine is an integral part of the story of slavery,” Todd Savitt, a medical historian at the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, told BuzzFeed News.
Savitt first reported in the 1970s that medical schools in Virginia had trafficked in slaves prior to the Civil War. But historians had seen medical experiments on slaves as a practice isolated to a few physicians — until now.
“We are moving here toward a view of experiments on slaves as something more systematic,” Savitt said.
In the summer of 1989, construction workersunearthed 10,000 bones from a basement belonging to the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta.
Many of the bones showed signs of dissection. Forensic investigators quickly discovered they were the legacy of five decades of grave robbing intended to provide medical students before and after the Civil War with cadavers for anatomical lessons. This practice didn’t end until the early 20th century.
That medical college and others like it grew in the shadow of slavery, Kenny said, and the professionalization of medicine in the decades before the Civil War. “Physicians needed to learn anatomy and slaves provided a supply of bodies,” he said.
The price of slaves increased precipitously in 1807, after the halt of the British slave trade. That made medical treatment to heal injured or diseased slaves “an industry,” Kenny said, and helped create a demand for experiments.
Slave hospitals sprang up around trading centers such as Augusta, New Orleans, and Charleston, South Carolina, to doctor sick slaves intended for sale and to heal valuable workers.
The South Carolinian physician J. Marion Sims, often referred to as the “Father of Gynecology,” developed a surgery for complications of childbirth on slave women in the 1840s. (Long seen as a villain, more recent historical research has suggestedthat some women willingly participated in Sims’ surgeries, making him a more ambiguous figure.) Many surgical techniques — including amputations and experiments using ether as anesthesia — were tested on slaves before they made their way into standard medicine.
“In the days before clinical trials, doctors did not universally agree what constituted appropriate standards of care,” Marie Jenkins Schwartz, a historian at the University of Rhode Island, told BuzzFeed News by email. “One thing I know from studying doctors (other than the very successful Sims) is this: reckless experimentation does not make for good medicine,” said Schwartz, author of Birthing a Slave: Motherhood and Medicine in the Antebellum South.
The old studies did not mention whether the slaves consented to the experiments, and physical restraints were common. Some reports describe slaves bolting from the room when subjected to electrical shocks or scalpels without pain relief.
A woman named Harriet who was suffering from seizures was electrically shocked in an 1848 experiment for 53 minutes, for example, even though it required three doctors to restrain her. Doctors interpreted her protests about her back being burned as “as a sign of electrotherapy’s efficacy,” according to the study, and recommended it for everyone suffering “nervous disorders.”
“Under the skin, they knew on some level that people were the same. So they used [slaves] in medicine,” Savitt said. “They knew that, but still saw slaves as different from other people. I struggle with the question every time I’m asked to explain it.”
Although historians are only beginning to explore widespread experimentation on slaves and grave robbing, Kenny added, the findings won’t surprise black communities near the sites of medical hospitals. Folklore of “Night Doctors” who robbed graves, or “Black Bottle Men” who poisoned patients to dissect them, is more than a century old, he said, and likely springs from the era of these cruel experiments.
Original Article Found At http://www.buzzfeed.com/danvergano/cruel-medical-experiments-on-slaves-were-widespread-in-the-a
Consent from a slave is a laughable concept. They were owned and lived at the pleasure of someone who thought owning people was an economic concern. These procedures were terrible abuses.
In, The 20 th Century you have a lot of Doctors, that do Procedures, in African Americans and save the pain Meds for Whites, and charge the Insurance Company full Price, which is Disrinatory Practices.
Barbarians! And folk wonder still why Black and Brown folk are relatively absent from clinical trials.
Barbarians! And folk wonder still why Black and Brown folk are relatively absent from clinical trials.
And even in more recent times medical experiments or should I say without conest making young sterilized without their consent or thier parents consent. When will this end?
What the fuck do they mean by ‘slaves consented’?Here is a human being who has been reduced to a commodity, a guinea pig owned by some sick white shithead and you want to tell us they were given the freedom to choose whether they wanted to be experimented on or not? Is this a joke!? Well, it’s not funny. I can’t imagine how people can reconcile with such cruelity visited upon Africans. A race whose power was so feared by the perpetrators that they were crashed person after the other to keep them crippled and controlled like animals in a zoo. I will never forget my history,the story of my people.
Slaveowners and their supporters are the same political faction as the Nazis and Fascists in Europe.
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Interesting that this article ignores my 2007 National Book Critics Circle Award- winning book Medical Apartheid, the only comprehensive social history of medical research with African Americans. It cover all these events and many, many more , yet the article ignores it while citing less comprehensive works.
Medical Apartheid should be required reading
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Hi there colleagues, how is the whole thing, and what you want to say on the
topic of this article, in my view its really remarkable for me.
The truth of systemic atrocities continues into the 21st century an non-blacks are complicit in furthering the madness. Education is the key to influence the masses to take a stand against this madness.
36 years in medicine and it’s worse!!!
From early man to Y2K, we have conceived, invented, practiced, mastered and published a complete 20 volume set Encyclopedia of Everything We Need to Know.
We have the Big Bang, Singularity, String Theory, Copernicus, Galileo, Newton’s Laws, E equals MC squared, Einstein Field Theory, can now manage catastrophic natural disasters, clean Water, wholesome food, vitamins, minerals, trace elements, clothing, shelter, housing, manufacturing, mass production, landed on the moon 6 times, split the atom, and with the push of 2 buttons incinerated >129,000–226,000 innocent souls scorching Mother Earth in the process with joy of accomplishment.
By the 1980s scientists had revealed the final 2 key ways to naturally cure pain and and benefit psychological torment and misery:
Muscles have a hidden additional absolute daily requirement of stretching pulling out knots blood flow restoring phagocytes, stem cells, immune fighters, flushing toxins, waste products, dead rotten putrefied material recycling into healthy vital powerful muscles – again and again for life.
Synthesis of neurochemicals optimizing nerve to nerve transmissions
So today all anyone has to do to help another injured, traumatized, diseased, stricken with pain and misery beyond imagination, ejected and rolled over by a vehicle, beaten with a bat to the edge of death, hacked was a machete into pieces, or riddled with bullets is easy as 1-2-3.
1. Personal will fully benefit from 10 ancient non-toxic holistic curative restorative regenerative therapies. I refer to combinations of these 10 as doses of TLC.
Key data points: Vital signs, blood testing and or X Rays are NEGATIVE.
All problems complaints or concerns a primary care provider will have to help with our those related to normal to tumultuous lifestyles living stresses and strains WITHOUT spending your allotted 10-12 hours per day recovering.
2. Medical (no healing capacities) man-made foreign and toxic chemicals. Key data points: Vital signs, blood testing and or X Rays are POSITIVE :
a. Infectious disease.
c. Mental illness.
e. Palliative and soothing agents
3. Surgical (no healing capacities) Destructive to the body and when used wisely hold a benefit: Key data points: Vital signs, blood testing and or X Rays are POSITIVE:
A. Appendicitis, cholelithiasis, kidney stones, ball instructions cancer multiple traumas etc.
As always 1 drop of evil In an ocean of goodness left to take root and grow will require atom bombs to knock since into those men who are stuck on stupid.
everything that a medical doctor must do 1st to do no harm is to treat their patients with compassion, honor, and enough of the personalized therapies, with the patient as the center of attention until they are satiated and ready to return to full duty work play family friends taking care the little ones as they pursue happiness.
I’ll bet most of you have a lot of questions.
Ask and I’ll answer as quickly as possible.
by the way from 1976 to 1990 everyone and authority from doctors to the president you with clarity the members of the American Medical Association were engaged in a worldwide complex profiteering, racketeering, privateering, monopoly, acting exactly like all of the worldwide opium cocaine drug cartels.
Today @usa.gov is a conglomerate of all of that right under our noses!
I’ve given this information to anyone everyone I could find only about 10 people responded with oh my God. Everyone else dead silence!
what will you do?
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Just LOVE learning all of this new info. Knowledge truly is power. Look forward to much more on our history, which we were never taught in the so called schools that we black people attended. Very sad indeed.
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